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By Dennis Colin, Micronetics VCO Group

Editor's Note: Due to the large number of equations in this article we have made a low-resolution PDF available for you to download. Also, because of an error on the last page, we are re-running the last paragraph of the article in its entirety below.

In Figure 4, and neglecting Ro noise (below filter corner, PLL attenuates noise; above corner, filter cap does so), the op amp output noise is 4.355 nV/Hz. L(fos)E is then 114.24 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz, and total VCO phase noise is 107.9 dBc/Hz, a degradation of only 1.1 dB.

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