By Dr. Oleksandr Gorbachov, CTO, RFaxis, Inc. With over 600 million new mobile phone handsets shipped each year, mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily lives. As more and more new features are being demanded in smaller and thinner handset form factors, excessive current consumption and poor battery life become real issues for the mobile phone user.
By Eamon Nash and Ashraf Elghamrawi, RF Group, Analog Devices, Inc. Improving the Power Added Efficiency (PAE) of High Powered Amplifiers continues to be a challenging goal in a Wireless equipment industry that is struggling to deliver cheaper, smaller equipment that consumes either less electricity or in the case of portable devices, less battery current.
By Martin R. Johnson, ILLUMRA and Eugene You, EnOcean, Inc. Wireless, energy harvesting technologies are making waves in building automation and energy conservation controls because they overcome limitations of hardwired solutions and maintenance issues inherent to battery-dependent devices. This article will discuss the science behind wireless, energy harvesting technology and explain how to budget miniscule amounts of energy sufficient for managing building energy usage.
By Mark Forbes, Mentor Graphics Corporation As is well known, maximum RF coupling occurs when impedances on each side of the coupling match. A perfect match occurs when the impedances are identical and the Complex Matching Factor (CMF) is 0dB. When the CMF is 0db, the imaginary terms of the complex conjugate cancel, and the resistance is equal.
By Suresh Ram, National Semiconductor Corporation There is a rising demand for accessible medical care. The world population is rapidly growing and aging, increasing the cost of healthcare. Medical practitioners need small energy efficient and cost effective diagnostic devices. Portable diagnostic equipment that improve quality of healthcare in a cost effective manner are highly desirable.
By Tim Carey, Aeroflex Test Solutions Non-cellular technologies are increasingly being integrated into cellular terminals, and this has generated the need for test systems that comprise a number of different test platforms, which can make system integration both complex and costly. At the same time, there is pressure to increase test speed and, in combination with the proliferation of functional tests associated with the introduction of new standards, this further increases the costs.
By Iboun Taimiya Sylla, Texas Instruments The explosion of wireless technologies in recent years has allowed the emergence of several wireless standards in the industrial scientific and medical (ISM) band. With these new standards we are experiencing penetration of wireless applications in every segment of our daily lives.
By Byron Henderson, Mesh Dynamics Smart Grid networks are currently receiving tremendous government attention and funding. The US Department of Energy says the Smart Grid "would integrate advanced functions into the nation's electric grid to enhance reliability, efficiency, and security, and would also contribute to the climate change strategic goal of reducing carbon emissions.
Within the last few years, designers have established a solid powertrain foundation for hybrid vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). All major auto manufactures see the hybrid and electric vehicle market as one continuing to enjoy steady growth. One major driving factor to the projected increased growth is the significant technology advances taking place that directly impact the HEV and EV power electronic systems.
By Kerry Johnson, QNX Software Systems Already, vehicle telematics services have been deployed in tens of millions of automobiles. Nonetheless, mobile services offered on smart phones and other consumer devices are growing at a far greater pace. A quick survey of these mobile services reveals that many offer significant utility to drivers or passengers; in fact, some are designed specifically for in-vehicle use.
By Chris Keeser, Cypress Semiconductor Corp. The other day I was driving to the local dump to drop off a load of trash carefully stacked into the back of the family minivan. Suddenly I noticed that the “trunk open” light came on. I quickly pulled over just as the rear hatch popped all the way open and the van began to empty my garbage bags all over the road.
The growth of features available in mobile phones has both driven and been enabled by changes in NAND based memory architectures. As phone capabilities evolved, feature rich phones migrated from NOR-based solutions to NAND-based solutions. Today, with the growth of GB1 (Gigabyte) class phones, a variety of NAND-based architecture solutions are available with various tradeoffs to consider.
In the operating environment seen by electronics today there are numerous sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). This is due in large part to the increased use of RF technology. These types of interference result in the need for common mode filtering in applications utilizing differential interfaces.
Dr. Robin Tichy, Micro Power Electronics Li-ion cells come in three basic form factors: cylindrical, prismatic (rectangular brick shape) and the flat Lithium polymer cells. Lithium polymer cells, sometimes called laminate cells, are available in custom footprint size. They can be very thin or quite large depending on their intended use.
Third- and fourth-generation wireless base stations that use today’s most-common interface standards, such as WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, LTE, TD-LTE and Wimax, require a large amount of signal processing to keep up with the uplink and downlink bandwidth requirements.
Mukesh Kumar, Texas Instruments The military electronics industry, which includes mission critical products, has always had quality as its ultimate objective. It was a widely held belief that the military’s computers, communications systems and all things electronic had to be a step or two ahead of everyone else’s systems.
The earliest embedded systems – industrial automation and scientific instruments communicated with operators using physical actuators: knobs, dials, gauges, indicator lights, etc. Today’s intelligent devices, especially in consumer electronics, feature more sophisticated operator interaction and boast user interfaces (UIs) comparable to desktop applications.
Simon Whittle, Nujira Ltd. The new generation of data-oriented digital communications networks being rolled out in the cellular, broadcast, military and other environments carries a sting in the tail for RF designers. In order to achieve high data rates, these new standards use advanced modulation techniques such as OFDM which significantly increase the variations in amplitude of the transmitted signal.
WiMAX is the only globally deployed 4G technology that today is enabling primary broadband in developing markets and providing 4G services in the most advanced telecommunication markets. With millions of subscribers today and triple-digit cumulative average growth predicted through 20141, WiMAX is starting to enjoy mass market adoption.
To overcome the ever increasing end-user performance requirements of mobile devices, new multi antenna devices are being developed utilizing the recent advances in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) techniques, such as transmit diversity and spatial multiplexing introduced e.g. in IEEE802.16 standard.
Evergreen Solar, Inc., a manufacturer of String Ribbon™ solar panels with its proprietary silicon wafer technology, recently unveiled its upcoming line of higher efficiency solar panels featuring its newly developed BOOST™ Cell Technology, at Intersolar 2010 in Munich, Germany. The new ES-D and ES-E series of panels for residential and commercial markets feature Evergreen’s new Boost cell technology that uses micro wires instead of conventional bus-bars to reduce cell shading, improve current collection and ultimately increase the overall panel efficiency.
Siemens Energy and Prysmian Powerlink will connect two North Sea offshore wind farms to the German grid using a high voltage direct current (HVDC) link for transpower. The order awarded to the BorWin2 consortium is worth more than €500 millio. The Veja Mate and Global Tech 1 offshore wind farms, which will have a combined power generating capacity of 800 MW, will be connected to the grid via a submarine cable link carrying HVDC.
National Semiconductor Corp. recently announced that it has reached new deals related to its SolarMagic technology with Green Energy Solar (GESolar) and QC Solar. SolarMagic monitors and maximizes the energy harvest of each individual PV panel through a combination of advanced algorithms and leading-edge mixed-signal technology.
Following a record-breaking year of capacity additions in 2009 - with 9.8 GW of wind projects installed - the US wind market finds itself confronting a growth-constrained 2010 and a near-term market landscape wrought with increased competition, according to a new market study, US Wind Power Markets and Strategies: 2010-2025 from IHS Emerging Energy Research.
WASHINGTON- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is recognizing three universities with the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) awards for generating power and thermal energy while saving energy, lowering greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing air pollution, which can reduce impacts on the public’s health.