This case study will describe an application of the Azimuth Systems Field-to-Lab (FTL) Solution by a market-leading handset manufacturer. Real-world drive testing is very expensive; lab testing is much less expensive and faster -- provided that the real world can be emulated with sufficient fidelity.
By Ashraf Elghamrawi, Analog Devices ( www.analog.com ) The amplifier is one of the most versatile building blocks used in RF/IF signal chains today. They are commonly used throughout designs to overcome signal losses incurred from passive mixers, filters, baluns, and other passive elements. Since these losses occur across the entire signal chain five main families of amplifiers have been developed by Analog Devices.
Problem Solvers - Filters By Jidong Dai, Ph.D., Mike Ferguson, Frank Perkins RFM, and Bob Dockemeyer, Delphi Sirius Satellite Radio broadcasting utilizes highly elliptical orbit (HEO) satellites, resulting in superior coverage over North America where the service is targeted. However, even with superior coverage, there are still areas where the satellite signals are blocked, like city centers with many skyscrapers, overpasses, and areas with strong interference signals.
Welcome to Tech Exchange on Test & Measurement! Each month this new section will focus on a different product category and will include a brief interview with a representative from a leading OEM. This Month: Vivek Vadakkuppattu, Product Manager for Azimuth Systems Q: What were some of the most significant technological developments in the Test & Measurement industry in 2010? At Azimuth Systems, we continued to see the trend of greater focus being put on real world-centric performance testing in 2010.
By Roland Gamper, LeCroy Corporation Regardless of the system topology and application domain, the development, maintenance and monitoring of electronic system architectures using mixed protocols requires tools able to straddle several busses, at various speeds and with different line characteristics.
Case Study: Customized Coin Cell Holders for Automotive Toll Tags Challenge A leading manufacturer of toll tags recently approached MPD looking for a new battery holder to replace soldered-in batteries. The customer had two main problems with their current battery solution.
By Steve Graves, McObject Among wireless systems developers, database management system (DBMS) replication is typically associated with high availability (HA). Deploying real-time DBMS software on a master node, with multiple synchronized copies of that database running on standby nodes, and automatic failover to one of these replicas in the event of the master node’s failure, provides for instant recovery and maximum system up-time.
By Dr. Oleksandr Gorbachov, CTO, RFaxis, Inc. With over 600 million new mobile phone handsets shipped each year, mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily lives. As more and more new features are being demanded in smaller and thinner handset form factors, excessive current consumption and poor battery life become real issues for the mobile phone user.
By Eamon Nash and Ashraf Elghamrawi, RF Group, Analog Devices, Inc. Improving the Power Added Efficiency (PAE) of High Powered Amplifiers continues to be a challenging goal in a Wireless equipment industry that is struggling to deliver cheaper, smaller equipment that consumes either less electricity or in the case of portable devices, less battery current.
By Martin R. Johnson, ILLUMRA and Eugene You, EnOcean, Inc. Wireless, energy harvesting technologies are making waves in building automation and energy conservation controls because they overcome limitations of hardwired solutions and maintenance issues inherent to battery-dependent devices. This article will discuss the science behind wireless, energy harvesting technology and explain how to budget miniscule amounts of energy sufficient for managing building energy usage.
By Mark Forbes, Mentor Graphics Corporation As is well known, maximum RF coupling occurs when impedances on each side of the coupling match. A perfect match occurs when the impedances are identical and the Complex Matching Factor (CMF) is 0dB. When the CMF is 0db, the imaginary terms of the complex conjugate cancel, and the resistance is equal.
By Suresh Ram, National Semiconductor Corporation There is a rising demand for accessible medical care. The world population is rapidly growing and aging, increasing the cost of healthcare. Medical practitioners need small energy efficient and cost effective diagnostic devices. Portable diagnostic equipment that improve quality of healthcare in a cost effective manner are highly desirable.
By Tim Carey, Aeroflex Test Solutions Non-cellular technologies are increasingly being integrated into cellular terminals, and this has generated the need for test systems that comprise a number of different test platforms, which can make system integration both complex and costly. At the same time, there is pressure to increase test speed and, in combination with the proliferation of functional tests associated with the introduction of new standards, this further increases the costs.
By Iboun Taimiya Sylla, Texas Instruments The explosion of wireless technologies in recent years has allowed the emergence of several wireless standards in the industrial scientific and medical (ISM) band. With these new standards we are experiencing penetration of wireless applications in every segment of our daily lives.
By Byron Henderson, Mesh Dynamics Smart Grid networks are currently receiving tremendous government attention and funding. The US Department of Energy says the Smart Grid "would integrate advanced functions into the nation's electric grid to enhance reliability, efficiency, and security, and would also contribute to the climate change strategic goal of reducing carbon emissions.
Within the last few years, designers have established a solid powertrain foundation for hybrid vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). All major auto manufactures see the hybrid and electric vehicle market as one continuing to enjoy steady growth. One major driving factor to the projected increased growth is the significant technology advances taking place that directly impact the HEV and EV power electronic systems.
By Kerry Johnson, QNX Software Systems Already, vehicle telematics services have been deployed in tens of millions of automobiles. Nonetheless, mobile services offered on smart phones and other consumer devices are growing at a far greater pace. A quick survey of these mobile services reveals that many offer significant utility to drivers or passengers; in fact, some are designed specifically for in-vehicle use.
By Chris Keeser, Cypress Semiconductor Corp. The other day I was driving to the local dump to drop off a load of trash carefully stacked into the back of the family minivan. Suddenly I noticed that the “trunk open” light came on. I quickly pulled over just as the rear hatch popped all the way open and the van began to empty my garbage bags all over the road.
The growth of features available in mobile phones has both driven and been enabled by changes in NAND based memory architectures. As phone capabilities evolved, feature rich phones migrated from NOR-based solutions to NAND-based solutions. Today, with the growth of GB1 (Gigabyte) class phones, a variety of NAND-based architecture solutions are available with various tradeoffs to consider.
In the operating environment seen by electronics today there are numerous sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). This is due in large part to the increased use of RF technology. These types of interference result in the need for common mode filtering in applications utilizing differential interfaces.
Dr. Robin Tichy, Micro Power Electronics Li-ion cells come in three basic form factors: cylindrical, prismatic (rectangular brick shape) and the flat Lithium polymer cells. Lithium polymer cells, sometimes called laminate cells, are available in custom footprint size. They can be very thin or quite large depending on their intended use.
Third- and fourth-generation wireless base stations that use today’s most-common interface standards, such as WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, LTE, TD-LTE and Wimax, require a large amount of signal processing to keep up with the uplink and downlink bandwidth requirements.
Mukesh Kumar, Texas Instruments The military electronics industry, which includes mission critical products, has always had quality as its ultimate objective. It was a widely held belief that the military’s computers, communications systems and all things electronic had to be a step or two ahead of everyone else’s systems.
The earliest embedded systems – industrial automation and scientific instruments communicated with operators using physical actuators: knobs, dials, gauges, indicator lights, etc. Today’s intelligent devices, especially in consumer electronics, feature more sophisticated operator interaction and boast user interfaces (UIs) comparable to desktop applications.
Simon Whittle, Nujira Ltd. The new generation of data-oriented digital communications networks being rolled out in the cellular, broadcast, military and other environments carries a sting in the tail for RF designers. In order to achieve high data rates, these new standards use advanced modulation techniques such as OFDM which significantly increase the variations in amplitude of the transmitted signal.