Two industry megatrends are reshaping the way we design and deploy networks and compute (i.e. datacenter servers). The first is Network Functions Virtualization with the goal of moving functions such as content distribution, firewalls and base station controllers from proprietary hardware to standard, low cost servers.
As processing speeds in electronics continue to rise and packaging continues to shrink, sensitive internal components are located closer and closer together. Higher clock speeds coupled with increased density of components leads to increasing amounts of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) noise.
But transistors based on semiconductors can only get so small. “At the rate the current technology is progressing, in 10 or 20 years, they won’t be able to get any smaller,” said physicist Yoke Khin Yap of Michigan Technological University. “Also, semiconductors have another disadvantage: they waste a lot of energy in the form of heat.”
Mobile penetration has reached a high level in developed markets and is increasing in other areas around the world. According to information from the GSMA, leading European nations now have over 90% subscriber penetration. Developing markets are set to rise from an average penetration level of 39% in 2012 to 47% in 2017, and will be the largest factor spurring the global growth of mobile over the next five years.
Convergence is a hot topic again. But this time its impact on people’s everyday lives will dwarf the computer-communications-consumer (3C) version of the 1990s. Today, the design community is being challenged to find ways to link any device that potentially can draw electric current with the rest of cyberspace. Watches, toasters, weight scales, and thermostats; bicycles, blood pressure monitors...
The first Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications can be traced back to World War II, and the ability to have machines “talk” to each other (via data communication networks) is essential for monitoring and controlling assets within homes, businesses, and even critical national infrastructure projects of today.
Any device or system that requires a clock or timing device to function will improve its performance as the quality of the timing device improves. Parameters that define the quality of a timing device include: phase noise, jitter, temperature stability, aging, PSRR, power dissipation, G-sensitivity, as well as other parameters that are sensitive to a particular application.
Embedded wireless networks are one of the fastest growing applications, outpacing the overall semiconductor industry, due to the rapid uptake of embedded wireless communication in the form of smartphones and portable medical devices. Embedded wireless networks are also found in automobiles, enabling smarter safety features, better engine performance management, and as networked infotainment devices
Demand for wireless communications has created an increase in telecommunications equipment, as well as a need for advanced, high-quality infrastructure to help prevent product failure, especially in hash environments. Outdoor telecommunication devices experience severe weather and daily temperature fluctuations, causing strong pressure differentials inside the equipment, which can stress and damage housing seals, allowing leaks to occur.
The demand for wireless technologies continues to increase at rapid speeds, making RF power amplifiers a crucial component in wireless infrastructure equipment. Feedback from Wireless Design and Development's (WDD) readers suggests how power consumption, energy efficiency, and sustainability are important drivers in base station design for RF amplifiers.
Back in 2009, human rights activist, Natalia Estemirova, was found murdered as she was working on "extremely sensitive" cases of human rights abuses in Chechnya during armed conflicts in the republic and the North Caucasus region. After her death, the Civil Rights Defenders -- an independent expert organization in Stockholm that aims to defend people's civil and political rights -- launched the Natalia Project in the spring of 2013...
Back in 2009, human rights activist, Natalia Estemirova, was found murdered as she was working on “extremely sensitive” cases of human rights abuses in Chechnya during armed conflicts in the republic and the North Caucasus Before her death, Estemirova documented and reported on human rights violations; such as forced disappearances, extrajudicial killings, and torture.
While the cloud promises to reduce enterprise network infrastructure and operating costs, the remote execution of applications makes factors such as latency, performance, and reliability critical considerations in the design and deployment of cloud computing platforms. A key factor determining server performance, cloud or not, is maintaining a bit error rate (BER) on the order of 1.E-12 for the overall system.
System-Level Design and Verification of Wireless Embedded System to Meet Global Demands Using a Mixed Domain OscilloscopeMay 28, 2013 3:15 pm | by Faride Akretch, Technical Marketing Manager, Tektronix | Articles | Comments
Designing and implementing wireless systems to be used in different geographic regions around the world represents a significant challenge. Wouldn’t it be nice if everyone all agreed on the use of frequency, modulation type, power levels, and bandwidth? Unfortunately, that’s not the world we live in and radio regulations vary from region to region, especially for some of the frequencies used in unlicensed radio...
The fiber optics market has experienced a significant increase in demand over the last decade, largely driven by the rise, availability, and affordability of sophisticated portable electronics, such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. These devices have accelerated global connectivity, simultaneously driving the need for a fast and reliable Internet infrastructure.
With cellular phones becoming not just voice, but now also data appliances, there is a growing need for operators to provide wide area (3-5 mile) coverage that assures high-rate data and voice services in nearly every location. What used to be considered “acceptable” gaps in coverage, like isolated homes...
The era of the Internet began in 1980s by networking organizations like the military, government agencies, corporate, and universities. If we talk to any user from that time, they wouldn’t have the slightest clue of what the future of this technology would be.
When it comes to new applications and overall potential for a given technology, not much rivals the integration of wireless sensor networks (WSN). Reader feedback regarding new WSN applications, trends, and obstacles essentially provided a snapshot of the wireless design marketplace as a whole...
For the adventurers, explorers, and extreme athletes, getting the perfect shot or photo can be quite cumbersome with a regular, hand-held camera or camcorder; especially when both hands are needed to maneuver a certain situation or action. New York start-up, Pivothead ...
Digitally modulated signals fill space and travel through almost every wired and optical network. Today, almost all wireless services use a plethora of complex carrier modulation schemes. The continuous improvement in modulation technologies, components, and advancements ...
When Charles Babbage prototyped the first computing machine in the 19th century, he imagined using mechanical gears and latches to control information. ENIAC, the first modern computer developed in the 1940s, used vacuum tubes and electricity.
Mobility continues to be the hottest trend for the semiconductor and electronics industry. As though there were any need for supporting data, the major electronics shows from the first quarter of 2013 displayed and demoed the latest array of mobile devices.
Amidst the much-discussed love affair between consumers and their mobile devices, another relationship is blooming in the mobile sector. Device manufacturers from nearly every vertical industry are increasingly offering devices and products equipped with mobile connectivity, transforming “dumb” devices into “smart” ones.
OMRON’s MEMS switch has a SPDT（Single Pole Double Throw） contact configuration. Two MEMS chips that have a SPST (Single Pole Single Throw） contact configuration are installed on the ceramic package using the flip chip bonding method as shown Figure 1.
There's no question that LTE is where it's at if you're an operator. According to a recent report from 4G Americas, more than 150 operators globally have now launched LTE services in 67 countries, 50 of which were launched in the past five months.